May 18, 2023
Colorado Music Festival 2023 in Boulder, June 29 — August 6

Joshua Bell, Artist in Residence, CMF Debut
Sneak Peek of “The Elements,” New Work for Violin and Orchestra by Jake Heggie, Jennifer Higdon, Edgar Meyer, Jessie Montgomery and Kevin Puts, August 3 & 6

“Music of Today”
July 11: JACK Quartet: New York Stories
July 13: John Corigliano: Living Legend
July 16: World Premiere of Adolphus Hailstork’s “JFK: The Last Speech”
plus world premieres by Jordan Holloway and Carter Pann

Nicolai Lugansky Plays Rachmaninoff
in CMF Debut for Composer’s 150
th Birthday
All-Rachmaninoff Concerts July 6-7 & July 9

Guest Artists Making Their CMF Debuts Include
Conductors Kalena Bovell, François López-Ferrer, Eun Sun Kim and Hannu Lintu
Pianists Nicolai Lugansky, Michelle Cann and Tony Siqi Yun
Violinist Grace Park | Cellist Johannes Moser
Mezzo-Soprano Kelley O’Connor | Bass-Baritone Eric Owens

The Colorado Music Festival (CMF) in Boulder, Colorado, under the leadership of Music Director Peter Oundjian, returns to Chautauqua Auditorium in Boulder this summer for 20 concerts June 29-August 6.  

Since Oundjian’s arrival as Music Director in 2020, the Festival has been making a name for itself by offering a thoughtful and adventurous combination of music by living composers and favorites from the classical canon, with internationally-acclaimed guest artists, ensembles and conductors. The spectacular setting, at the base of Boulder’s dramatic Flatirons, is just an hour from Denver. 

“Everything takes place at the splendid Chautauqua Auditorium, a venue like no other,” wrote the BBC Music Magazine in 2022. “Built in 1898 entirely out of wood, inside it resembles an enormous barn, with a high, beamed ceiling and rustic slatted walls through which sunlight pokes here and there … the sound is warm, resonant and remarkably detailed.”

The Colorado Music Festival Orchestra is made up of world-class musicians from around the country who arrive in Boulder to perform under Oundjian’s direction. In his report on the 2022 Festival in The New York Times, David Allen wrote, “The festival ensemble is an admirable one … and they come together each summer to play with terrific commitment and no shortage of virtuosity.”

“A festival is a celebration of creativity,” said Music Director Peter Oundjian, “and we are so fortunate to bring to you some of the greatest performers alive today, including artist-in-residence Joshua Bell, along with the extraordinary talents of eight of today’s brilliant composers. It is such a thrill to hear today’s voices alongside — and interacting with — groundbreaking voices from the past, giving us a unique window into centuries of the greatest in creativity.”   

“Not only does the 2023 season promise to be artistically stunning, I know our audiences will appreciate the way the programming weaves so many diverse, timely and relevant voices into the fabric of classical music,” said Festival executive director Elizabeth McGuire. “I’m very proud of what we are presenting.”

Festival highlights include the following. A complete, chronological list of concerts can be found at the end of the news release. 

World-renowned violinist Joshua Bell is CMF’s 2023 artist-in-residence. Bell opens the Festival on June 29 and 30 with Bruch’s First Violin Concerto, then returns to close the season on August 3 and 6 with a two-part preview performance of “The Elements,” a new work featuring five movements, each written by one of today’s top composers (Jake Heggie, Jennifer Higdon, Edgar Meyer, Jessie Montgomery and Kevin Puts). A project co-commissioned by five major orchestras, “The Elements” will receive formal premieres around the world beginning in September 2023. 

John Corigliano and Adolphus Hailstork
“Music of Today,” an annual series featuring living composers:
  • Tuesday, July 11: The JACK Quartet presents New York Stories, a program featuring two masters of New York's downtown heyday, Philip Glass and John Zorn, as well as music by Caleb Burhans, Caroline Shaw and Morton Feldman. 

  • Thursday, July 13: The Festival is honored to welcome Pulitzer Prize-, Academy Award-, and five-time Grammy-winning composer John Corigliano as 2023 composer-in-residence, with a retrospective program examining three stages of Corigliano’s vast career: his pastoral “Gazebo Dances,” the song cycle “One Sweet Morning” (written for the 10th anniversary of 9/11) and “Triathlon,” written for and performed by guest saxophonist Timothy McAllister. 

  • Sunday, July 16: The world premiere of Adolphus Hailstork’s “JFK: The Last Speech.” This new symphony was inspired by the final public address of President Kennedy, which was a celebration of the poet Robert Frost. Composer. “My writing will reflect the autumn season, the solemnity of the moment and the unique oratorical gifts of Kennedy the president, and the profound literary gifts of Frost the poet," Hailstork says of the new work. “JFK: The Last Speech” is a project of members of the Amherst Class of 1964 through their nonprofit Reunion ’64, Inc. They had the privilege of witnessing President Kennedy deliver his last major speech on Oct. 26, 1963. This concert also features world premiere commissions from two Colorado-based composers, Jordan Holloway and Carter Pann; Holloway's "Flatiron Escapades" celebrates the 125th anniversary of the Chautauqua Association.

  • The Festival celebrates Rachmaninoff’s 150th birthday with two full programs of his most iconic work composed during his time in America. Lauded Rachmaninoff interpreter Nicolai Lugansky makes his CMF debut, joining the Orchestra for Rachmaninoff’s Piano Concerto No. 3 on July 6 & 7 and, on July 9, his Piano Concerto No. 4 and Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini. On the first program, the Orchestra also performs Rachmaninoff’s Symphony No. 3, and in the second, his Symphonic Dances.

  • The Robert Mann Chamber Music Series returns for its third year with the JACK Quartet (July 11) and Brentano String Quartet (July 18) making their CMF debuts.

  • The Festival welcomes a diverse group of musicians making their CMF debuts. In addition to Joshua Bell and Nicolai Lugansky, the 2023 season welcomes the debuts of: conductors Kalena BovellFrançois López-FerrerEun Sun Kim and Hannu Lintu; pianists Michelle Cann and Tony Siqi Yun; violinist Grace Park; cellist Johannes Moser; mezzo-soprano Kelley O’Connor; and bass-baritone Eric Owens, who recently starred in “Champion” at The Met in the role of the older Emile Griffiths. 

On Sunday, July 2, at 10:30 a.m., CMF will feature its Family Concert “Peter and the Wolf + Goodnight Moon,” conducted by Kalena Bovell and featuring soprano Jennifer Bird-Arvidsson and narrator Janae Burris. Along with Prokofiev’s “Peter and the Wolf,” a beloved symphonic fairy tale that introduces young listeners to the instruments of the orchestra, this program also features Eric Whitacre’s musical setting of the children’s classic “Goodnight Moon,” Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s festive “Danse Nègre” and Georges Bizet’s “Carmen” Suite No. 1. Tickets are $10.  

Tickets to the 2023 Festival are available for purchase on the CMF website

New for 2023, CMF is offering $10 tickets for youth (ages 18 and under) and students (with current school identification). For more information, visit

For more information about CMF, or to purchase tickets, visit or call the Chautauqua box office at 303-440-7666. For a full media kit, including details about performances and events and images, visit

Colorado Music Festival concerts take place at Chautauqua Auditorium, which was built in 1898. Located at the base of Boulder’s Flatirons and one of only 25 National Historic Landmarks in the state of Colorado, the Colorado Chautauqua remains committed to its historic purpose.

About Colorado Music Festival 

Founded in 1976, the ​Colorado Music Festival (CMF)​ presents a summer season of classical music concerts performed by professional musicians from around the world at the historic Chautauqua Auditorium in Boulder. Guest artists from Europe, Asia, South America and the U.S. join more than 100 all-star musicians, who comprise the CMF Orchestra, in performances that inspire and engage concertgoers of all ages. Under the music direction of Peter Oundjian, the CMF thrills audiences of more than 20,000 each season with programming that embraces the most beloved classical music repertoire, while integrating world music and the works of exciting modern composers. For more information about CMF, or to purchase tickets, visit or call the Chautauqua box office at 303-440-7666. 

Joshua Bell

Colorado Music Festival 2023
Summer Concert Season
Chronological List of Concerts

Thursday, June 29, 7:30 p.m.
Friday, June 30, 6:30 p.m.

Peter Oundjian, conductor
Joshua Bell, violin

Carlos Simon, “Motherboxx Connection” from “Tales: A Folklore Symphony” (2021)
Max Bruch, Violin Concerto No. 1 in G Minor
Modest Mussorgsky, “Pictures at an Exhibition” (orch. Ravel)

In his first appearances as 2023 artist-in-residence, violinist Joshua Bell performs Bruch’s First Violin Concerto. The great 19th century violinist Joseph Joachim, to whom the composer dedicated this masterpiece, considered this concerto to be “the richest, most seductive” of all German violin concertos, and it is an exquisite vehicle for Bell’s showmanship. The second half of the concert features Mussorgsky’s instantly recognizable “Pictures at an Exhibition,” a suite of musical paintings inspired by the sketches of the composer’s close friend Viktor Hartmann. The program opens with Sphinx Medal of Excellence recipient Carlos Simon’s “Motherboxx Connection,” the first movement of his “Tales: A Folklore Symphony for orchestra.” In Simon’s words the motherboxx is “an all-knowing entity that is aware of the multifaceted aspects of blackness.”

Sunday, July 2, 10:30 a.m.
Kalena Bovell, conductor
Jennifer Bird-Arvidsson, soprano
Janae Burris, narrator

Georges Bizet, “Carmen” Suite No. 1 for orchestra 
Eric Whitacre, “Goodnight Moon” (2011)
Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, “Danse Nègre” from “African Suite,” Op. 35, No. 4
Sergei Prokofiev, “Peter and the Wolf,” Op. 67

“Peter and the Wolf,” Prokofiev’s beloved symphonic fairytale uses the playful story of a wolf on the prowl to introduce young listeners to the instruments of the orchestra. Entertaining actor and comedian Janae Burris narrates. The 2023 Festival Family Concert is conducted by Panamanian-American conductor, speaker and poet Kalena Bovell and features soprano Jennifer Bird-Arvidsson. The concert also includes an upbeat suite from Bizet’s “Carmen,’ Eric Whitacre’s musical setting of the children’s classic “Goodnight Moon,” and Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s festive overture celebrating his African culture, “Danse Nègre.”

Nicolai Lugansky

Thursday, July 6, 7:30 p.m.
Friday, July 7, 6:30 p.m.

Peter Oundjian, conductor
Nicolai Lugansky, piano

Sergei Rachmaninoff, Piano Concerto No. 3 in D Minor, Op. 30
Sergei Rachmaninoff, Symphony No. 3 in A Minor, Op. 44

Rachmaninoff’s Third Piano Concerto is famous for being one of the most fiendishly difficult pieces ever composed for the instrument. Pianist Nicolai Lugansky, one of the preeminent Rachmaninoff interpreters of our time, performs here as part of his global tour celebrating the composer’s 150th birthday. While this program celebrates the gems that Rachmaninoff composed during his time in America, his moody and staggeringly beautiful Third Symphony also hints at the exiled composer’s homesickness for his native Russia.

Sunday, July 9, 6:30 p.m.
Peter Oundjian, conductor
Nicolai Lugansky, piano

Sergei Rachmaninoff, “Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini,” Op. 43
Sergei Rachmaninoff, Piano Concerto No. 4 in G Minor, Op. 40
Sergei Rachmaninoff, “Symphonic Dances,” Op. 45

In the second of two programs celebrating the music Rachmaninoff wrote while living in America, the Orchestra performs his final composition: “Symphonic Dances,” a three-movement suite featuring a frantic dance, a restless waltz, and a final flourish of triumph. Lauded Rachmaninoff interpreter Nicolai Lugansky joins the Orchestra for the composer’s capricious Fourth Piano Concerto and his “Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini.” 

Jack Quartet

Tuesday, July 11, 7:30 p.m.
JACK Quartet

Morton Feldman, “Structures” for String Quartet (1951) 
Caleb Burhans, “Contritus” (2010) 
Philip Glass, String Quartet No. 5 (1991) 
Caroline Shaw, “Entr'acte” (2011) 
John Zorn, “The Remedy of Fortune” for String Quartet (2016)

Hailed by The New York Times as “our leading new-music foursome,” the JACK Quartet maintains an unwavering commitment to giving voice to underheard composers. The Quartet describes this program here: “Two masters of New York's downtown heyday, Philip Glass and John Zorn, bring stylistically divergent visions: a rollicking, romantic ride through a maze of patterns in Glass' epic String Quartet No. 5, and a peek into the catacombs in Manhattan's Upper West Side from John Zorn who brings medieval mystery to contemporary America. Caleb Burhans leads the listener in a healing ritual of absolution in “Contritus,” while Caroline Shaw pays homage to the father of the string quartet, Josef Haydn, in her “Entr'acte.” Morton Feldman finally reminds us of the pattern and structure all around us. New York: a city of Byzantine systems and countless ideas that defies tidy summary, but always fascinates and excites continued exploration.”

Thursday, July 13, 7:30 p.m.
Peter Oundjian, conductor
Kelley O'Connor, mezzo-soprano
Timothy McAllister, saxophone
John Corigliano, composer

John Corigliano, “Gazebo Dances” (for orchestra) (1974)
John Corigliano, “One Sweet Morning” for voice and orchestra (2010)
John Corigliano, “Triathlon” for saxophone and orchestra (2020)

Music Director Peter Oundjian conducts this retrospective program of Pulitzer Prize-winning John Corigliano, 2023 composer-in-residence. The program examines three stages of Corigliano’s vast career, beginning with his pastoral “Gazebo Dances.” More than 25 years later, Corigliano wrote the song cycle “One Sweet Morning” in commemoration of the 10th anniversary of the events of 9/11, borrowing text from four poems of varying intensity and ultimately ending with, as he explains, “the dream of a world without war — an impossible dream, perhaps, but certainly one worth dreaming.” The tender words of these poems are performed here by "a voice of sheer gold" (Cincinnati Business Courier), mezzo-soprano Kelley O'Connor. Corigliano’s most recent work is “Triathlon,” written for guest saxophonist Timothy McAllister, who returns to the Chautauqua stage after dazzling Festival audiences in 2022. “Triathlon” demonstrates McAllister’s musical athleticism in three dynamic movements which feature — in turn — soprano, alto, and baritone saxophone.

Sunday, July 16, 6:30 p.m.
Peter Oundjian, conductor
Janice Chandler-Eteme, soprano | Eric Owens, narrator
Adolphus Hailstork, composer

Jordan Holloway, “Flatiron Escapades” (world premiere commission)
Carter Pann, “Dreams I Must Not Speak” (world premiere commission)
Adolphus Hailstork, “JFK: The Last Speech” (world premiere)

On an idyllic fall day in Amherst, Massachusetts, in 1963, President Kennedy delivered a speech to honor his friend, the poet Robert Frost (nine months after the poet’s death). The speech has been called the “most majestic” of JFK’s career, and it was also his last. Twenty-seven days later, Kennedy was assassinated. 

Hailstork says “JFK: The Last Speech” “reflects the autumn season, the solemnity of the moment, the unique oratorical gifts of Kennedy the president, and the profound literary gifts of Frost the poet.” The libretto was written by Neil Bicknell (an Amherst senior in 1963), and author of a book by the same name. Conceived as a musical conversation between the President and the Poet, the libretto alternates narrated lines from the President’s Amherst speech, with lines from Frost’s poems, which are sung. 

“JFK: The Last Speech” is a project of members of the Amherst Class of 1964 through their non-profit Reunion ’64, Inc. They had the privilege of witnessing President Kennedy deliver his last major speech, on October 26, 1963. Hailstork’s symphony joins two earlier projects: Bicknell’s book and a documentary of the same title.  For more information, visit:

This landmark program begins with two additional world premiere performances of music by rising star Jordan Holloway and Pulitzer Prize-nominated CU Boulder Professor of Composition Carter Pann, both commissioned by the Festival.

Tuesday, July 18 , 7:30 p.m.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, String Quartet No. 20 in D Major, K. 499
James MacMillan, “Memento” for string quartet (1994)
James MacMillan, “For Sonny” for string quartet (2011)
Ludwig van Beethoven, String Quartet No. 13 in B-flat Major, Op. 130

The 2023 Robert Mann Chamber Series continues with the “wonderful, selfless music-making” (The Times, London) of the Brentano String Quartet, Ensemble-in-Residence at the Yale School of Music. The program opens with Mozart’s intriguing “Hoffmeister” String Quartet, a chamber gem of character and complexity. Two touching memorial pieces by James MacMillan follow: his brief and delicate “Memento” and the miniature “For Sonny,” rife with pizzicato nursery rhymes and harmonies of shifting tones, composed to honor the memory of a friend’s grandson. It is fitting that Brentano ends their performance with one of the last and most profound pieces by Beethoven, since the Quartet takes its name from arts patron Antonie Brentano, believed to have been Beethoven’s mysterious “Immortal Beloved.”

Thursday, July 20, 7:30 p.m.
Friday, July 21, 6:30 p.m.

Michael Christie, conductor and Music Director Emeritus
Michelle Cann, piano

Maurice Ravel, Piano Concerto in G Major
Florence Price, Piano Concerto in One Movement
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Symphony No. 4 in F Minor, Op. 36

Music Director Emeritus Michael Christie returns to conduct Tchaikovsky’s Fourth Symphony, which concludes with one of the most brilliant and virtuosic finales in all of music. Pianist Michelle Cann, 2022 Sphinx Medal of Excellence recipient, performs Florence Price’s “Piano Concerto in One Movement.”  The Philadelphia Inquirer declared Cann’s recent performance of Price’s work “exquisite in both the Liszt-like technical sparkle and probing humanity of Price’s writing.” Ms. Cann also joins the orchestra for Ravel’s glittering Piano Concerto in G. 

Francois Lopez Ferrer and Grace Park

Sunday, July 23, 6:30 p.m.
François López-Ferrer, conductor
Grace Park, violin

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, “The Impresario” Overture, K. 486 
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Violin Concerto No. 3 in G Major, K. 216
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Adagio and Fugue in C Minor, K. 546
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony No. 36 in C Major, K. 425, “Linz”

Spanish-American conductor François López-Ferrer, currently serving as Resident Conductor of the Académie of the Opéra de Paris, leads the orchestra in an all-Mozart program. He begins with the delightful overture to Mozart’s tongue-in-cheek opera “Impresario,” followed by his ornate and impressive Third Violin Concerto, performed here by the “fresh, different and exhilarating” (San Francisco Chronicle) violinist Grace Park. The orchestral arrangement of Mozart’s solemn Adagio and Fugue follows intermission, and the concert culminates with Mozart’s inventive Symphony No. 36, the “Linz.” 

Tuesday, July 25, 7:30 p.m.
Members of the Colorado Music Festival Orchestra 

Benjamin Britten, Phantasy Quartet for Oboe and Strings, Op. 2
     Olav van Hezewijk, oboe; Jonathan Carney, violin; DJ Cheek, viola; Julia Yang, cello
Francis Poulenc, Sextet in C Major for Piano and Winds, FP 100
     Viviana Cumplido Wilson, flute; Joshua Lauretig, oboe; Louis DeMartino, clarinet;
     Josh Baker, bassoon; Roy Femenella, horn; Vivienne Spy, piano
Johannes Brahms, String Sextet No. 2 in G Major, Op. 36
     Jonathan Carney and Erica Miller, violin; DJ Cheek, and Linda Numagami, viola;
     Julia Yang and Britton Riley, cello

The Robert Mann Chamber Music Series continues with musicians from the Festival Orchestra for a Britten Quartet and two sextets, by Poulenc and Brahms. 

Thursday, July 27, 7:30 p.m.
Friday, July 28, 6:30 p.m.

Eun Sun Kim, conductor
Johannes Moser, cello

Mason Bates, “The Rhapsody of Steve Jobs” (2021)
Dmitri Shostakovich, Cello Concerto No. 1 in E-flat Major, Op. 107
Johannes Brahms, Symphony No. 2 in D Major, Op. 73

Korean conductor Eun Sun Kim is known for her “assured technical command, subtlety and imagination” (New York Times); she began her tenure as the Caroline H. Hume Music Director of San Francisco Opera in 2021. She leads this program, which opens with the “electroacoustic soundworld” of Mason Bates’ “Rhapsody of Steve Jobs.” German-Canadian cellist Johannes Moser, whom Gramophone called “one of the finest among the astonishing gallery of young virtuoso cellists,” performs Shostakovich’s boisterous and demanding First Cello Concerto, an apt showcase for the cellist’s musical prowess.

Tony Siqi Yun and Hannu Lintu

Sunday, July 30, 6:30 p.m.
Hannu Lintu, conductor
Tony Siqi Yun, piano

Einojuhani Rautavaara, “Cantus Arcticus,” Op. 61 (1974)
Robert Schumann, Piano Concerto in A Minor, Op. 54
Franz Joseph Haydn, Symphony No. 96 in D Major, “The Miracle”

Internationally renowned Finnish conductor Hannu Lintu joins the Festival for a program beginning with “Cantus Arcticus,” the “concerto for birds and orchestra,” by Lintu’s countryman, Finland’s Einojuhani Rautavaara. One of Schumann’s most enduring works, his Piano Concerto, is performed by guest pianist Tony Siqi Yun. "After bringing a soft touch to [Schumann's] opening statement, Yun displayed a robust, muscular sound in the cadenza that complemented the tug-of-war that occurs between soloist and orchestra in this work," says Bachtrack. Rounding out the program is Haydn’s Symphony No. 96, “The Miracle.” 

Tuesday, August 1, 7:30 p.m.
Members of the Colorado Music Festival Orchestra 

Ludwig van Beethoven, String Trio in C Minor, Op. 9, No. 3
     Kevin Lin, violin; DJ Cheek, viola; Austin Huntington, cello

Claude Debussy, “Danses sacrée et profane” (“Sacred and Profane Dances”)
     Andrea Mumm, harp; Marian String Quartet; Emma Richman, Sahana Shravan, violin;
     Cameren Anai Williams, viola; Wangshu Xiang, cello

Antonín Dvořák, Piano Quintet in A Major No. 2, Op. 81
     Kevin Lin, violin; Douglas Kwon, violin; DJ Cheek, viola; Austin Huntington, cello;
     Vivienne Spy, piano

The final concert of the 2023 Robert Mann Chamber Music Series highlights the Festival Orchestra’s musicians performing music by Beethoven, Debussy and Dvořák. 

Clockwise from top left: Jake Heggie, Jennifer Higdon, Kevin Puts, Edgar Meyer and Jessie Montgomery

Thursday, August 3, 7:30 p.m.
Peter Oundjian, conductor
Joshua Bell, violin

“The Elements”: Suite for Violin and Orchestra (preview performance)
     “Fire” by Jake Heggie
     “Space” by Jessie Montgomery
     “Water” by Edgar Meyer
     (Commissioned by Joshua Bell)
Claude Debussy, “La Mer”

In the first evening of a two-part preview performance, 2023 Artist-in-Residence Joshua Bell performs selections from “The Elements,” an unparalleled work for violin and orchestra in five movements, each written by a different acclaimed composer. In this concert, Bell performs “Fire” (by Jake Heggie); “Water” (by Edgar Meyer); and “Space” (by Jessie Montgomery). A project co-commissioned by five major orchestras, “The Elements” will receive formal premieres around the world beginning in September 2023. The program closes with a beloved favorite by Debussy, “La Mer.” 

Sunday, August 6, 6:30 p.m.
Peter Oundjian, conductor
Joshua Bell, violin

“The Elements”: Suite for Violin and Orchestra (preview performance)
     “Air” by Jennifer Higdon
     “Earth” by Kevin Puts
     (Commissioned by Joshua Bell) 
Gustav Mahler, Symphony No. 1

Music Director Peter Oundjian and the Festival pull out all the stops for an unforgettable season finale. In the second evening of a two-part preview performance, 2023 Artist-in-Residence Joshua Bell performs selections from “The Elements,” an unparalleled work for violin and orchestra in five movements, each written by a different acclaimed composer. In this concert, Bell performs “Air” (by Jennifer Higdon) and “Earth” (by Kevin Puts). A project co-commissioned by five major orchestras, “The Elements” will receive formal premieres around the world beginning in September 2023. 

Oundjian continues his tradition of ending the Festival with a grand work by Mahler; in his First Symphony Mahler celebrates the pure taste of victory after a struggle, guiding listeners through daydreams and darkness before rewarding them with a heroic ending and as much blinding joy as the horns can muster. 

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